Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Technological Accessibility And Socioeconomic Mobility...

I remember travelling to the resort and marvelling at the engineering feat of the Cayo Santa Maria (CSM) causeway in Cuba. The design of the causeway functioned as a method of connecting small parchments of man-made land to the larger archipelagos. Despite the devastation of Hurricane Katrina in ‘08, the causeway remained portionately intact. During my visit in ‘11, however, the causeway was noted for its damages bridges still in need of further repair1. The causeway itself (for the most part) is unlit. Due to (prior) partisan economic sanctions against Cuba, the CSM is a main artery for tourist flow being the major route to the resort(s). The main archipelago sponsors twelve hotels, the first built in ‘01, is quite incredible, considering the limitations placed on the technological accessibility and socioeconomic mobility of Cuban workers. While traversing on the CSM causeway, I distinctly thought of the abundance of people travelling Cuba’s main highway bef orehand. I had asked the guide, (foolishly,) ‘Where are they going?’ -- ’To work’. It was considered a privilege, I learned, to be able to work on the archipelagos—at least you wouldn’t have to walk to work2. A walk that took the workers half of their day. The CSM causeway is very narrow, a two-lane 48 km stretch, I was curious to how the resort workers (unable to walk the causeway) made it to work. Transportation being expensive, not primarily vehicle ownership but public transportation, again, how do they commute? DidShow MoreRelatedThe Technological Accessibility And Socioeconomic Mobility Of Cuban Workers947 Words   |  4 Pagesconsidering the limitations placed on the technological accessibility and socioeconomic mobility of Cuban workers. While traversing on the CSM causeway, I distinctly thought of the abundance of people travelling Cuba’s main highway earlier. I had asked the guide, (foolishly,) ‘Where are they going?â €™ -- ’To work’. It was considered a privilege, I learned, to be able to work on the archipelagos—at least you wouldn’t have to walk to work2. A walk that took the workers half of their day. The CSM causeway isRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pages 2 †¢ INTRODUCTION of two epochs we routinely set apart as centuries suggests the need for flexibility in demarcating phases of world history, and for determining beginnings and endings that accord with major shifts in political and socioeconomic circumstances and dynamics rather than standard but arbitrary chronological break points. In the decades that followed the Great War, the victorious European powers appeared to have restored, even expanded, their global political and economicRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesPractices? 30 Point/Counterpoint Lost in Translation? 31 Questions for Review 32 Experiential Exercise Workforce Diversity 32 Ethical Dilemma Jekyll and Hyde 33 Case Incident 1 â€Å"Lessons for ‘Undercover’ Bosses† 34 Case Incident 2 Era of the Disposable Worker? 35 vii viii CONTENTS 2 2 The Individual Diversity in Organizations 39 Diversity 40 Demographic Characteristics of the U.S. Workforce 41 †¢ Levels of Diversity 42 †¢ Discrimination 42 Biographical Characteristics 44 Age 44 †¢Read MoreMarketing Management 14th Edition Test Bank Kotler Test Bank173911 Words   |  696 Pagesagents that display, sell, or deliver the physical product or service(s) to the buyer or user. Answer: TRUE Page Ref: 11 Objective: 3 Difficulty: Easy 96) The task environment of a firm consists of demographic, economic, natural, and technological environments, as well as the political-legal system and the social-cultural arena. Answer: FALSE Page Ref: 11 Objective: 3 AACSB: Analytic skills Difficulty: Moderate 97) Regulation of industries has created greater competition and

Data Security and Mobile Devices Free Essays

Data Security and Mobile Devices Introduction: Mobile devices such as smartphones, PDAs, tablets, and netbooks have become an integral part of everyday business operations. Millions of people log into their company’s secure network on mobile devices via wireless Internet or even accessing their email, making sensitive data more susceptible to data theft and hacking. Mobile technology is advancing at such a fast pace, making it harder for IT managers to keep up with newly emerging threats. We will write a custom essay sample on Data Security and Mobile Devices or any similar topic only for you Order Now Since the smartphone emerged in the business scene, cybercrime has increased exponentially. Data security has now become the main focus for most IT managers in larger corporations. What are some of the risks associated with using mobile devices in business operations? Human error is the biggest risk associated with data security when it comes to using mobile devices. This is mostly due to loss of theft of a smartphone or other mobile device. In a study conducted in Washington DC last year, taxi drivers counted the number of mobile phones that were left behind in taxis over a six month period. Over eighty-three hundred phones were recovered. That was almost twenty-five times the number of laptops that were left in the taxis during the same period. Although all corporate laptops are password protected, few have password protection on their mobile devices. (Phifer) â€Å"According to Credent Technologies, eighty-eight percent of mobile devices carry valuable information- from patient, customer and employee records, financial statements, and passwords,† (Phifer). Because so few people PIN-lock their phones, all of this sensitive data can easily fall in to the hands of a hacker. Mobile users often auto save their username and passwords to avoid monotonous reentry. This gives the hacker access to any information available to theft victim. Another major risk associated with the use of mobile devices is mobile malware. Most mobile operating systems lack the anti-virus and other security feature that are found on laptops. This makes mobile devices susceptible to viruses such as Trojan and worms. Doombot is a Trojan virus that is designed to affect all mobile operating platforms such as Android, iOS, and blackberry. It is transferred through MMS and Bluetooth (Panda Security). What are some techniques used by IT managers to minimize security risks with mobile devices? It is vitally important to the cyber security of a company for IT managers to constantly be assessing the security of their network. Some important steps managers are taking are education, visualization, conservative defaults, hard switching, and most importantly manager and employee training. Educating employees about the risks of using mobile devices is important because the human element poses the greatest risk to the cyber security of the company. Its important for the firm to have a training program in place so all employees know how to protect themselves and the company. Visualization is also important in constant uphill battle of cyber security. Managers must constantly be looking for the latest threats against the network and try to find a solution before a breach occurs. Conservative default settings on the firm’s network prevent employees from viewing non-secure websites and also from downloading files from places from outside the company’s network. This would allow employees to still download attached files from intra-company email but would prevent the downloading of files that might be infected with a virus. (Nykodym) IT managers also use outside contractors to monitor a company’s network security. Companies like BlueFire Mobile Security cater to the rapidly expanding reliance on mobile devices. Their services provide protection for lost or stolen devices, information encryption, and security while on the Internet. They also offer protection for a company’s wired network as well. They provide intrusion prevention, firewall, authentication, and encryption for the entire network. Contracts with companies like BlueFire are often made with smaller firms or with firms who want to reduce the size and budget of their IT department. (Computer Security Update) How significant was the increase of cyber attacks when mobile devices became part of everyday life? Smartphones exploded on the business scene in the mid 2000s. They provided the convenience of accession of vital information from anywhere. According to Sharia Panela’s article for GMA News , â€Å"between 2007 and 2012, small and medium businesses reported steadily increasing web attacks. Malware, phising, and other types of violation surged by 35 percent while email attacks soared by 12 percent† (Panela). All of these types of attacks are in a large part due to the lack of security on mobile devices. In Norton’s 2012 Cybercrime Report, the total price tag on consumer data cybercrime was $110,000,000,000. China leads the pack with a total loss of $46 billion and the Unites States coming in second with a total loss of $21 billion. With Apps for everything from mobile banking to syncing work and personal email, people have more sensitive data on their phone than ever before. The Cybercrime report concludes with the changing face of cybercrime. The new frontier for hackers is social media websites and new mobile devices. (Palmer) Conclusion: With all of the new developments in cyber security hackers always seem to be one step ahead. Smartphones and other mobile devices have become such an important part of everyday business employees. These devices are a virtual candy store for hackers, a one-stop shop for all of the data stored on the device. If the device is lost or stolen, it can be used to access the internal network of the firm and extract private data about customers or financial information. Mobile Security has come to the forefront of the IT department’s agenda in larger data driven firms. Although they implement measures to prevent security breaches, the human element is the most damning. Managers need to provide educational programs for their employees to learn about proper use of mobile devices on company networks. Works Cited â€Å"Computer Security Update. † Computer Security Update. 8. 4 (2007): 1-4. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. Nykodym, Nick. â€Å"Journal of Politics and Law. † Journal of Politics and Law. 5. 1 (2012): 1-6. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. Palmer, Adam. â€Å"Norton Cybercrime Report 2012. † Norton Cybercrime Report 2012. (2012): n. page. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. Panela, Sharia. â€Å"Personal gadgets raise risk of cybercrime in workplace. † GMA News Online. GMA Network Inc. , 18 2012. Web. 4 Nov 2012. Phifer, Lisa. â€Å"Business Communications Review. † Business Communications Review. (2007): 23-25. Web. 4 Nov. 2012. â€Å"Virus Encyclopedia . † Panda Securities. Panda Worldwide, Web. 4 Nov 2012. How to cite Data Security and Mobile Devices, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Verification Of Keplers 3rd law Essay Example

Verification Of Keplers 3rd law Paper Research Question: Is it possible to verify Keplers 3rd law using a database?  Hypothesis: I believe that it is possible to verify Keplers 3rd law using a database due to the nature of the law. Keplers law states that the square of the time of one orbital period is directly proportional to the cube of its average orbital radius. Mathematically this looks like:  Where T is the orbital period and R is the orbital radius. As a result we can see that:  In order to verify this law we have to draw a table using the database given and then draw a graph. The graph should be a straight line which will mean that indeed T2/R3= constant. Variables:  Seeing that we are only using a database to try and verify a law there are absolutely no variables. All we are trying to do is show that Keplers 3rd law works. There is no independent variable because we are not changing anything and there is no dependent variable because there is no independent one. Controlled variables dont exist either. However, this can be argued and we could see that the independent variable are the T and R that we are changing and the dependant variable is the constant which we are trying to show. Apparatus needed:  Ã‚  No apparatus is needed at all here other than a database and a spreadsheet in order to be able to verify this law.  Method of experiment:  1. Derive Keplers 3rd law using the equation Gravitational attraction=centripetal force  2. Create a table with the period and radius in it taken from the database.  3. Show that T2/R3 is a constant by dividing the two for different plants in your database.  4. Draw a graph of T2 over R3 to show that a linear correlation exists which will support the fact that T2/R3 is a constant. We will write a custom essay sample on Verification Of Keplers 3rd law specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Verification Of Keplers 3rd law specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Verification Of Keplers 3rd law specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Data Collection and Processing  It is more convenient to draw to graphs than one because there is a large difference in the scale in terms of distance to the sun and time for 1 orbit between the first planet and the last planet.  Conclusion and Evaluation  As this is not an investigation we cannot really look at any errors, weaknesses or limitations and ways of improving the experiment. All we do with this is use the database given to try and verify Keplers 3rd law. To verify Keplers 3rd law I thought the best thing to do is get the mathematical definition of his law and trying and prove it using the numbers given in the database. Unfortunately, as we can see from the table, T2/R3 didnt wasnt a constant all the time but if we look at the results they are all pretty close which suggests that, indeed T2/R3 = K. This means that we can use the period of the earth and its distance to the sun to find periods of other planets and/or their distance from the sun regarding that we know one of the two. Thinking about why the constant wasnt precisely accurate, I believe that the numbers in the database are rounded up or are not fully accurate and therefore cannot give a 100% accurate result for the constant. As a result, the graphs are also not perfect, especially the second but the fact that there is a linear correlation in the graphs is sufficient enough to verify Keplers law due to the fact that the numbers in the database are not 100% accurate.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Bandwidth Adaptation And Synchronization Multimedia Streaming System Information Technology Essay Essay Example

Bandwidth Adaptation And Synchronization Multimedia Streaming System Information Technology Essay Essay Example Bandwidth Adaptation And Synchronization Multimedia Streaming System Information Technology Essay Essay Bandwidth Adaptation And Synchronization Multimedia Streaming System Information Technology Essay Essay To make diverse multimedia content on complex webs, end user demands to do usage of any multimedia connected device. In this modern and ubiquitous multimedia age, consumer can utilize any calculating multimedia device nowadays in the distinguishable composite interconnected webs. In diverse or heterogenous webs, in conformity with bing bandwidth ( clip dependent ) , layered cyclosis of audio ocular content should be able to pull off appropriate show and content of audiovisual spot watercourses. To vie with these issues, both scalable audiovisual cryptography in analogue with audiovisual streaming method is required. For the feature of scalable audiovisual cryptography, assorted superior methods of audiovisual version was projected to give joint scalabilities of perceptual traits, i.e. , Scalable picture coding demands Fine farinaceous scalability and scalable sound coding demands bit-sliced arithmetic cryptography ( BSAC ) . Besides this, the advantage of scalable audiovisual cryptography is that an encoder can compact audiovisual informations with the superior quality at one time, and a decipherer can reconstruct informations from fractional acknowledged audio ocular spot streams [ 2 ] . On the other manus, there is a possibility of doing perturbation to continual audiovisual playout synchronism because of the presence of different decrypting clip complexness on superimposed scalable audio ocular spot watercourses. Past researches have non dealt with this clip decrypting complexness job and so there were no solutions recommended. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] . The three major networking factors when sing with scalable audiovisual cyclosis are clip dependent available bandwidth, fickle web hold jitter and variable communicating because of loss of packages. These three factors besides cause unusual playout method while streaming the picture at the client side. Earlier probes intended on the rating of specific bandwidth measurings over TCP/UDP [ 1 ] [ 3 ] . The direction of commanding buffer was besides proposed to acquire rid of the inauspicious effects of the hold jitter. This involves the buffer control suspension and ordinance [ 7 ] [ 8 ] . In add-on with, the retransmission schemes were employed to lookup the awful conditions of perceptual qualities. In the same manner, the past researches wage attending merely to the non- scalable sound cyclosis or else scalable picture coding instead than traverse superimposed audiovisual cyclosis [ 2 ] [ 6 ] . In this work, several bed audio ocular cyclosis methodological analysis is suggested which includes the synchronism of audiovisual informations in two stages. Phase I synchronization involves in clip synchronism and stage II involves on clip playout agenda. The chief aim of this synchronism process is to convey out the audiovisual information playout in synchronised mode by taking complex web status and inconsistent decryption clip complexness for consideration. Fine farinaceous scalability ( FGS ) and Bit sliced arithmetic cryptography ( BSAC ) are the two patterns required for cleavage of sound and picture into two beds, Base bed ( BL ) and Enhancement bed ( EL ) severally. Depending on the deliberate bing bandwidth, a system of audiovisual transmittal with selective beds can be considered for streaming intercrossed or assorted audiovisual informations. Furthermore, audio informations have greater transmittal precedence than picture informations because audio informations are more sensitive to human perceptual experience than that of picture informations. To better the quality want and to take the effects of the irregular hold jitter, the expected buffer control technique with superimposed ( scalable ) audiovisual cyclosis can be used. The proposed system of several beds audiovisual streaming method will get down the de-jitter mechanism when the waiter gets the jitter entreaty. This action is taking topographic point to roll up the temporal presentation length of audiovisual content rapidly by administering more basal beds of audiovisual informations. For non scalable audiovisual cyclosis, longer presentation length which in bend demands more physical buffer capacity of shop up presented audiovisual informations. The physical buffer capacity signifies the content of the buffer in physical memory and presentation length shows the playing clip of the informations in the buffer. The web traffic and the extra client s buffer can be eliminated by utilizing the exp ected buffer direction which in bend builds up the presentation length rapidly at the inhibited mark rate. This can be achieved by doing usage of superimposed audiovisual cryptography method. Further, the conditional retransmission process takes attention of lost packages to acquire retransmitted if these packages are estimated to be arrived in front of scheduled decryption clip and playout. Furthermore, to synchronise audiovisual playout wholly, distinct decrypting time-complexity along with several superimposed audiovisual is besides considered in our proposed method of several superimposed audiovisual cyclosis. The remaining of the paper is discussed as follows. Section 2 analyses the FGS and BSAC methods. The proposed cyclosis of several superimposed audiovisual cyclosis method is explained in subdivision 3. Section 4 brings in the two stages of synchronism i.e. phase-1 in clip cyclosis and phase-2 on clip playout agenda. foreword In this work, Mpeg-4 FGS codec are used to compact scalable picture content and Mpeg-4 sound codec are used to compact scalable audio information. Bit Sliced Arithmetic Coding ( BSAC ) technique is used in this method to convey out compaction of audio informations. Under this subdivision, the scalable and superimposed audiovisual codec s will be discussed. Fine Granular Scalable coding The alterations in the spot rate of the associating web needs some accommodation in the information size. For this, a little portion of picture watercourse called as frame or macro block, is separated into undersized points. Granularity is the term referred to this sort of measuring the figure of little points which forms an entity. In this unit, the first point has the basic and necessary portion of informations and the staying points are nil but the polish to the basic point. This method of scalable in to establish bed and enhancement bed is called all right farinaceous scalability. Adjusting the coarseness of a watercourse to the spot rate capacities allow the gradual addition in the frame size, spot rate and frame rate. Video content in several bed formats is defined in Fine farinaceous scalability method. A superior quality can be achieved for a picture sequence by increasing the figure of beds. MPEG-4 ocular cryptography is an object signifier of Fine farinaceous scalability. It has differences from the old Signal to Noise Ratio ( SNR ) Scalability. In this FGS cryptography, non scalable cryptography type is being utilized for compacting base bed so that lower limit assured quality can be achieved [ 9 ] . Enhancement layer coding can be achieved by compacting the fluctuation between the alone images and the restructured images obtained by spot flat representation. At any spot rate because of random Enhancement bed can be truncated, betterments over the progressive SNR demand to be achieved depending on the bing bandwidth. MPEG-4 Advanced Audio cryptography ( AAC ) is the object signifier for Fine farinaceous sound cryptography. This signifier takes on Bit chopped arithmetic cryptography technique supplying forceful and farinaceous sound cyclosis. One 24 kbps Base bed and two 16 kbps enhancement bed can be constructed from the version 1 of MPEG-4 AAC [ 4 ] . In version 2, the BSAC tool can afford scalability up to 1Kbps for a glandular fever sound and 2Kbps for a stereo sound [ 5 ] [ 10 ] . Proposed Architecture of the cyclosis method The undermentioned figure1 shows the proposed several superimposed audio ocular cyclosis method which has some of import subdivision: scalable audiovisual processing unit, synchronism of transmittal, control constituent of client and waiter, etc. Some of the constituents are as follows: 1. Multimedia Base bed and enhancement bed and rate control can be managed by the scalable audiovisual constituent. Harmonizing to the bing bandwidth, FGS picture and sound informations will be truncated. 2. The transmittal synchronism constituent able to synchronise and convey scalable AV information from clip to clip which depends on the fundamental of the human position. The most favorable ratio of AV transmittal can be determined as a consequence. 3. The control constituent of the waiter establishes the appropriate transmittal rate and figure of audiovisual sweetening beds which depends on the deliberate bing bandwidth and client s retransmission and de-jitter demands. 4. For the stage 1 in-time cyclosis and stage 2 on clip playout synchronism, control constituent of client manages the retransmission and jitter petitions takes topographic point in the web. Harmonizing to the fig 1, the streaming synchronism together with the conditional retransmission process and de-jitter method, carried out by the phase-1 synchronism constituent. Further, playout synchronism along with variable decrypting clip complexness is achieved by this phase-2 synchronism constituent. Henceforth, for clarifying the projected adaptative buffer control, two of import practical footings are refereed. They are 1.Physical buffer capacity and Fig. 1 Proposed Architecture of the cyclosis system 2. Temporal presentation length. The degree of the buffer in physical memory is specified in this physical buffer capacity. Temporal playing length signifies the playing clip of audiovisual content accumulated in the buffer. Adaptive Scalable AV method Cross layered audiovisual spot watercourses are distributed by the proposed adaptive layered audiovisual transmittal method. Audio information is more notable than the picture informations because human position is more perceptive to audio than picture. This is the of import singularity of the human sensitiveness. Additionally, the other ground is video decipherer which can do usage of a system of playback interrupt to conceal the losing picture sections. But this is non the instance for audio sections. Privacy of audio sections is non possible because of the presence of high figure of audio samples. Hence, the precedency for the audio transmittal should be more than video transmittal. The process of the recommended adaptative scalable audiovisual cyclosis are considered as follows: 1. The ratio of figure of audio EL to the figure of video EL is termed as audiovisual transmittal ratio. It is denoted by RA/VEL. 2. The transmittal function tabular array is constructed based on the abovementioned transmittal scheme. The association between the transmittal rate and the figure of audiovisual EL s are mapped in the function table Fig 2. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio ( PSNR ) and Objective debasement classs ( ODG ) are utilized to gauge the change of picture and sound informations through which right transmittal ratio can be verified. Though the PSNR values show the difference of alone and restructured frames, it is hard to distinguish the ocular difference for the human ocular position if the PSNR value is more than 30dB. When sing with alleged sound quality, PEAQ method is employed as indicated in the ITU proposal BS 1387. The ODG and deformation index are the two end product factors of this PEAQ. The ODG values are ranged from -4 to 0. As a consequence, the cross layered audiovisual quality ( Qav ) can be evaluated by the places of sound and picture, i.e. , Qav = 2.Ra + Rv, where Ra and Rv are the aforementioned ranks of the audiovisual quality. Harmonizing to this cross audiovisual quality, the proper RA/V EL can be evaluated, for example, the default value 5. Two stage Synchronization method Two stage synchronism method is discussed in this subdivision. Controling the streaming control can be handled efficaciously by stage 1 synchronism. This stage 1 method besides includes conditional retransmission method and de-jitter mechanism. Taking into history of decrypting clip complexness, Phase 2 synchronism is employed which provides the proper synchronism of playout agenda. Phase-1 Synchronism The unsteady nature of the channel state of affairs nowadays during the multimedia communicating leads to many troubles. The extremely sensitive jitter which takes topographic point in multimedia communicating creates the uneven play-out agenda of the audiovisual content. This uneven drama out are causes more deformation on client s side. The de-jitter mechanism is put frontward to rectify the buffer s temporal presentation length. This will forestall the effects of the hold jitter takes topographic point in the web efficaciously. The hold jitter is nil but the hold among existent reaching and the expected reaching. Normally delay jitter can be classified into three classs ; they are positive jitter, negative jitter and nothing jitter. Positive jitter is the jitter where the packages arrival is delayed. The negative jitter is the jitter where packages arrived earlier and the nothing jitter is the packages arrived on clip. In this proposed several layered audiovisual method, merely po sitive jitter with delayed packages are taken into history. Supplying the bigger temporal presentation length and conveying down the hold jitter which takes topographic point in the web is the construct of this proposed de-jitter mechanism. The brink of the presentation when we sing the hold jitter THJ is estimated which depends on the old mean jitter ( J ) and the maximal hold jitter Jmax. THJ = ?. Jmax + ( 1- ? ) . Joule In this above mentioned expression, ? is a premier factor which estimates the right temporal presentation length. The value of this ? is 0.8 which is obtained by experimentation. The client will bring forth the de-jitter petition if the temporal presentation length is smaller than the value of the THJ which is nil but the threshold of the presentation length. In order to roll up the temporal presentation length rapidly and besides to command the overall traffic takes topographic point in the web, the waiter after having the petition will convey merely the base bed audiovisual content instead than conveying enhancement bed audiovisual information. The proposed de-jitter mechanism greatly reduces the effects of the hold jitter. Fig. 2 The graph of the ratio of the in-time decryption entryway utilizing the proposed de-jitter process for distinguishable hold heebie-jeebiess. Bettering the debasement of the perceptual quality in the proposed method, conditional retransmission method is devised. The web congestion and web mistake are the footing for the package loss. If the congestion or traffic becomes worse, so the packages will non come in order and this leads to incorrect scheduled decoding clip. The packages which are non in order besides be treated as lost packages. This lost package is occurred when hold clip is higher than a threshold THD. The threshold of the hold clip is given by THD = ?. Jmax + ( 1 ? ? ) J Experimental value of the ? , the control factor is stated to be 0.5. The nucleus thought behind the conditional retransmission method is, before the procedure of decrypting and playout to be done, the retransmitted packages can be obtained. This action takes topographic point if the temporal presentation length is larger than the indispensable retransmission clip. If the procedure of decrypting and playout occur before these retransmitted packages arrival, these lost packages are bounced back or skipped. The indispensable retransmission clip is estimated by the amount of package unit of ammunition trip clip and mean hold jitter. Furthermore, depending on the staying bandwidth ( Br ) and retransmitted informations ( Rret ) , server will look into the necessity for the retransmission of lost packages. To forestall the extra traffic, merely the base bed content will be retransmitted. The process for the conditional retransmission method is shown in fig 3. Phase 2 Synchronism The decipherer with distinct decrypting clip of the proposed several layered audiovisual cyclosis method is really much needed. Such decipherer is needed due to the demand of drama out of several superimposed audiovisual informations in a synchronised mode. This decipherer will retrace the distinct qualities of the audiovisual spot watercourses. The extreme clip distinction of sound and picture are stated as ?A and ?V Fig 3. The process of the conditional retransmission mechanisms ( left: client side, right: server side ) . . ?A = TdAmax ? TdAmin ?V = TdVmax ? TdVmin These are the two equations which province the maximal clip difference of decrypting sound and picture severally. TdAmax denotes the maximal audio BL and EL ( all ) decryption clip and TdAmin denotes the minimal audio BL and EL decryption clip. In the same manner, TdVmax and TdVmin denote the upper limit and minimal picture BL and EL ( all beds ) decrypting clip severally. For different measure of sweetening beds, the fig 4 indicates the indispensable decryption clip complexness in Federal Protective Service. The foremost sound and picture packages are played out with their hold clip of ?A and ?V. This is to vouch that the variable decryption clip should non do influence on audiovisual playback. To be clearer, ?A and get downing buffering clip of sound are one and the same. Similarly ?V and get downing buffering clip of video both represents the same. Therefore, PA1 and PV1 are nil but the playing out clip of first sound and first picture severally. These are given by Fig. 4 The graph demoing decrypting time-complexity ( unit: Federal Protective Service ) for different sums of sweetening beds. PA1 = TiA1 + ?A PV1 = TiV1 + ?V The echt playout clip for the first sound and video units is given by P1A|V = soap ( P1A, P1V ) . The consecutive ith audio portion of the playout is termed as PiA = Pi-1A|V + uiA, I A ; gt ; 1 where uiA is the sample period of audio parts. The process of phase-1 synchronism and phase-2 playout synchronism can be worked together good in the proposed system. Therefore the drum sander audiovisual playout with proper synchronism and the refined quality can be attained. The public presentations of the proposed several layered or scalable audiovisual cyclosis are demonstrated in this subdivision. This includes both in-time cyclosis and the on-time playout agenda. The extent of quantitative ratio is interrelated to the user s perceptual qualities. Comparing the public presentation with and without proposed processs, available bandwidth, and hold jitter and package loss are measured. Fig. 5 loss rate for different retransmission methods The de-jitter mechanism take the effects of jitter hold by maintaining the temporal presentation length quickly. In this experiment, the in-timing decryption ratio is given by ratio between the sum of packages coming for the decryption waiting line in clip and the sum of received packages at the client side. Harmonizing to fig 4, the de-jitter mechanism enhances the in-timing decryption ratio which specifies big figure of packages come ining into the decrypting waiting line in clip. This states that audiovisual informations in big figure will be scheduled to be decoded. In the same manner, the conditional retransmission method explained in the subdivision 5.1, is to develop the audiovisual quality if many lost packages needs to be retransmitted. In this experiment, when compared with full transmittal method, this proposed conditional retransmission method yield the higher ratio of in-time decrypting entryway. This is because the full transmittal may bring forth terrible web traffic and hike the transmittal hold. But this is non the instance with conditional retransmission method. In the fig 5, comparing for different retransmission methods are discussed. The three transmittal methods are full transmittal method, conditional retransmission method, and without retransmission. The proposed mechanism together with de-jitter mechanism achieve better public presentations than the other retransmission strategies. Fig. 6 Consequence of the proposed synchronism mechanism on the loss rate In add-on to this abovementioned strategies, the playout synchronism algorithm mentioned in subdivision 5.2 is employed to convey out the audiovisual playout on-time. In this experiment, the on-time playout ratio is the of import index which is given by Rplay = Uplay /Utotal in which Uplay is the measure of media parts played out on-time and Utotal is the entire media parts. From the fig 6, the proposed two phase synchronism strategies produce better ratio than the three other transmittal methods. The three transmittal methods are No Synchronization ( without stage 1 and phase 2 ) , with phase-1 synchronism and with both phase-1 synchronism and phase-2 synchronism. Decisions In this paper, several layered or scalable audiovisual cyclosis method are proposed which employs the techniques or methods of FGS and BSAC. The proposed adaptive scalable audiovisual transmittal method highlights the audio quality instead than video quality to convey out the typical human perceptual experience. The de-jitter process mentioned in the phase-1 cyclosis synchronism can change the temporal presentation length which brings out the playout smooth. The conditional retransmission method can retransmit lost or delayed packages expeditiously so that overall playback quality will be improved. Similarly, the proposed phase-2 synchronism mechanism can capable of synchronising the both audio and picture along with consideration of clip decrypting complexness. The experiment consequences of the proposed several layered audiovisual cyclosis method illustrate that this method is the possible cyclosis strategy to get the better of the bing troubles like limited bandwidth, foul quality , uneven playback etc nowadays in the omnipresent multimedia cyclosis. Recognition We wish to show our sincere thanks to the Department of Information Technology, Anna University, MIT Campus, Chennai for supplying the needed hardware and package tools to transport out simulation.

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Theodosian Code - Laws of the Middle Ages

The Theodosian Code - Laws of the Middle Ages The Theodosian Code (in Latin, Codex Theodosianus) was a compilation of Roman Law authorized by Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II in the fifth century. The code was intended to streamline and organize the complicated body of imperial laws promulgated since the reign of Emperor Constantine in 312 C.E., but it included laws from much further back, as well. The code was formally begun on March 26, 429, and it was introduced on February 15, 438. Codex Gregorianus and Codex Hermogenianus In large part, the Theodosian Code was based on two previous compilations: the Codex Gregorianus (the Gregorian Code) and the Codex Hermogenianus (the Hermogenian Code). The Gregorian Code had been compiled by the Roman jurist Gregorius earlier in the fifth century and contained laws from Emperor Hadrian, who reigned from 117 to 138 C.E., down to those of Emperor Constantine. The Hermogenian Code The Hermogenian Code had been written by Hermogenes, another fifth-century jurist, to supplement the Gregorian Code, and it focused primarily on the laws of the emperors Diocletian (284–305) and Maximian (285–305). Future law codes would, in turn, be based on the Theodosian Code, most notably the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian. While Justinians code would be the core of Byzantine law for centuries to come, it wasnt until the 12th century that it began to have an impact on western European law. In the intervening centuries, it was the Theodosian Code that would be the most authoritative form of Roman law in western Europe. The publication of the Theodosian Code and its rapid acceptance and persistence in the west demonstrates the continuity of Roman law from the ancient era into the Middle Ages. The Foundation of Intolerance in Christendom The Theodosian Code is particularly significant in the history of the Christian religion. Not only does the code include among its contents a law that made Christianity the official religion of the Empire, but it also included one that made all other religions illegal. While clearly more than a single law or even a single legal subject, the Theodosian Code is most famous for this aspect of its contents and is frequently pointed to as the foundation of intolerance in Christendom. Also Known As: Codex Theodosianus in LatinCommon Misspellings: Theodosion CodeExamples: A great many earlier laws are contained in the compilation known as the Theodosian Code.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Topic to be selected from a list Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Topic to be selected from a list - Essay Example The government of United Kingdom introduced a scheme known as Sure Start in 1989 to ensure that children receive the best possible start in life (Thompson, 2010). This initiative was led by Gordon Brown, who was the chancellor of Exchequer during that time (Thompson, 2010). The goal of this program was to provide a good start to the children, so that they can build upon it in the future. The support is provided in terms of ensuring good education beginning from the early years; providing facilities for childcare; ensuring good health care and ensuring family support for children’s well-being (Roberts, 2000). Additionally, the project also has the larger goal of community development so that children can have a head start to in their adult life as a result of spending their childhood with a robust and healthy community (Roberts, 2000). This study takes a closer look at the contribution of Sure Start to the lives of children and families in the UK. It also attempts to assess the impact, the challenges and the future outlook related to this program. The study starts by documenting the origins and functioning of this scheme and then moves on the various contributions that it has made to the lives of children and families. Then, it also takes a look at both the local and national assessment of the scheme, the view of researchers and its future outlook. The performance of Sure Start has been under the scrutiny in recent times and scholars as well as the media have been debating on the effectiveness of this program. Hence, it is necessary to understand the ways in which this program may have had an impact on both The research is undertaken through a literature survey and review of available research and literature on the topic of project Sure Start. As such, numerous journal articles, books, newspaper articles, and authentic websites were perused and

Sunday, February 2, 2020

International Taxation - Transfer Pricing Research Paper

International Taxation - Transfer Pricing - Research Paper Example For the purpose of the subject under consideration, it is also assumed that the subsidiary company in the aforementioned group structure is a foreign company and the Parent is a local company. When the companies in the group structures are involved in transactions with each other, they put a price on the transaction. This price is termed as the ‘transfer price’. This can further be illustrated with the help of the following example: Company A, the parent company, is situated in USA and its subsidiary company, Company B is situated in UK. Suppose that Company A has outsourced its financial activities to its subsidiary company, which means that Company A does not have any staff which are performing finance related activities (such as preparing financial statement, filing tax return, involved in budgeting etc.) instead the finance department of Company B is performing these activities for Company A and in return is charging a fee. Although the owners of both Company A and C ompany B are the same, but still one company is charging a fee for performing a particular service to another company in the capital structure. Transfer pricing is not a legal activity in its substance, but its misuse can label it as abusive. Transfer mispricing is quite common in manufacturing concern all across the globe where the transfer of services are involved rather than the transfer of services. A safe estimate made by the economists and financial analyst presents the fact that around 60% of the international trade that place globally, is between the countries under the same corporate structure. In addition to this figure, the economists also put forward the fact that due to transfer mispricing, billions of dollars is lost for tax revenue. The tax authorities argue the fact that transaction between associated companies within a group should take place on arms length basis. The arms length price is the price at which two unrelated parties in the market would agree to proceed with the transaction. The arms length pricing is a result of genuine negotiation in the market. But usually what happens in the global market is that companies usually distort the transfer prices at which the transaction is recorded. This usually assists the companies in avoiding tax and report higher profit for the financial year. Illustrative Example No. 1 (all figures in USD)    Subsidiary Company (fully owned and controlled by the parent company)    Parent Company (Head Office of the Multinational)             Host Country (China) Home Country (USA)                            Price of good bought    Transfer Price    Selling price Total Case 1 100    200    300    Profit Before Tax 100 100 200 Tax Rate (%)[ 2013] 25% 40%    Tax paid 25 40 65 Profit after tax    75    60    135 Case 2 100    280    300    Profit Before Tax 180 20 200 Tax Rate (%) 25% 40%    Tax paid 45 8 53 Profit after tax    135    12    147 Ca se 3 100    300    300    Profit Before Tax 200 0 200 Tax Rate (%) 25% 40%    Tax paid 50 0 50 Profit after tax    150    0    150 In the first illustrative example, we are considering two companies situated in USA and China. The company situated in the USA is the parent company whereas the company situated in China is the wholly owned subsidiary company of the Parent. The Parent company is involved in the trading of FMCGs. The items that the company A sale to the general public is manufactured by the subsidiary